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The Hopewell tradition is the term used to describe common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BC to 500 CE. Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber.
The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations, who were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell Exchange System.
Remnant groups have descendants living throughout the South.
They have organized and been recognized as tribes since the late 20th century by several states and, in some cases, by the federal government.
During the 19th century, the ideology of Manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, authorizing the government to relocate most Native Americans of the Deep South east of the Mississippi River from their homelands to accommodate European-American expansion from the United States.
Expansion of European-American populations after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands, warfare between the groups, and rising tensions. Government officials thought that by decreasing the conflict between the groups, they could also help the Indians survive.
The Southwestern Archaic Tradition was centered in north-central New Mexico, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley, southern Colorado, and southeastern Utah.
The differences in culture between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations of each culture, caused a great deal of political tension and ethnic violence.
Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. vary significantly, ranging from 1 million to 18 million. After the colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States of America, President George Washington, and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for United States citizenship. Assimilation (whether voluntary as with the Choctaw, or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.
The Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures refers to the time period from roughly 1000 BC to 1000 CE in the eastern part of North America.
The term "Woodland" was coined in the 1930s and refers to prehistoric sites dated between the Archaic period and the Mississippian cultures.