Dating methods used archaeologists

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Like TL, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) also measures trapped energy.

Unlike TL, the ESR test does not heat up the sample, which makes it suitable for materials that decompose when exposed to high temperatures. Once buried, tooth enamel begins to accumulate energy derived from background radiation.

While excavating the Palace of Knossos in the Greek island of Crete, several imported Egyptians items dated to 1500 BC were retrieved.

This, combined with several examples of Cretan pottery found in Egyptian archaeological contexts of around 1900 BC, allowed archaeologists to extend Egyptian chronology into Crete.

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Linguistics can date text on documents, pottery, building walls, and numerous other surfaces.

Thanks to the soil conditions, two large timbers that supported the gate structure survived.

Dendrochronological analysis established that both trees were cut between October in the year 44 and March in the year 45, a date consistent with historical data, since the Roman conquest of Britain dates to AD 43.

During a TL test, pottery is heated up, releasing trapped energy in the form of light.

This light is measured, revealing the amount of time since the formation of the crystal structure.

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