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In his ninth century Chronicle in the codex Coislinianus, George Hartolos says, "[John] was worth of martyrdom." Hamartolos proceeds to quote Papias to the effect that, "he [John] was killed by the Jews." In the de Boor fragment of an epitome of the fifth century Chronicle of Philip of Side, the author quotes Papias: Papias in the second book says that John the divine and James his brother were killed by Jews. 369-370): "That Papias source of information is simply an inference from Mark -40 or its parallel, Matt. None the less, this Marcan passage itself affords solid ground.No reasonable interpretation of these words can deny the high probability that by the time these words were written [ca.But at one several points it is stated that those who acknowledged Jesus as the Christ during the life of Jesus were put out of the synagogue.This anachronism is inconceivable as the product of an eyewitness. The word aposynagogos is found three times in the gospel (, , 16:2).The supposition that the author was one and the same with the beloved disciple is often advanced as a means of insuring that the evangelist did witness Jesus' ministry.Two other passages are advanced as evidence of the same - and . does not claim that the author was the one who witnessed the scene but only that the scene is related on the sound basis of eyewitness.It has been recently argued that portions of chaps.13-17 come froma redactor at the time of the writing of the Johannine epistles some ten years or more after the completion of the gospel." (p. 163): Some members of the Johannine community departed, became a rival sect, over the question of the 'flesh' of Jesus Christ, an event that leads the author of I John to the certainty that 'this is the last hour.' We do not know for sure who these secessionists were, but as Raymond Brown notes, they were 'not detectably outsiders to the Johannine community but the offspring of Johannine thought itself, justifying their position by the Johannine Gospel and its implications' (1979, 107).
One is left with the impression that the sacraments of baptism and eucharist did not figure in the theology of the fourth evangelist." (p.
is part of the appendix of the gospel and should not be assumed to have come from the same hand as that responsible for the body of the gospel.
Neither of these passages, therefore, persuades many Johannine scholars that the author claims eyewitness status.
But at last Christ departed from Jesus, and that then Jesus suffered and rose again, while Christ remained impassible, inasmuch as he was a spiritual being" (1.26.1). How could it be that the Fourth Gospel was at one time in its history regarded as the product of an Egyptian-trained gnostic, and at another time in its history regarded as composed for the very purpose of attacking this same gnostic?
Irenaeus stated that the purpose of John at Ephesus was as follows: by the proclamation of the Gospel, to remove that error which by Cerinthus had been disseminated among men, and a long time previously by those termed Nicolaitans, who are an offset of that 'knowledge' [gnosis] falsely so called, that he might confound them, and persuade them that there is but one God, who made all things by His Word; and not, as they allege, that the Creator was one, but the Father and the Lord another; and that the Son of the Creator was, forsooth, one, but the Christ from above another (3.11.1) Helms argues: "So the gospel attributed, late in the second century, to John at Ephesus was viewed as an anti-gnostic, anti-Cerinthean work.